The extreme points are represented to the N. by the Vetta d’Italia (47 ° 5 ′ 30 ″ lat. N.), to S. by the rock of Filfola near Malta (35 ° 47 ′ lat. N .; the Cala Malùk on the coast S. di Lampedusa is at 35 ° 29 ′ 24 ″ N.); to the W from Rocca Chardonnet in the Cottian Alps (6 ° 32 ′ 59 ″ long. E.), to E. from the Capo d’Otranto Lighthouse (18 ° 31 ′ 18 ″ long. E.).
As is known, the current political land border of the kingdom of Italy does not coincide everywhere with the aforementioned natural Alpine borders. To the west, from the Ligurian Sea (approximately halfway between Menton and Capo Mortola) to the sources of the Stura di Cuneo, it follows a very irregular line, which excludes from Italy a section of the Roia valley (with the villages of Breglio and Saorgio), while it includes a small portion of the upper Varo basin. From the sources of the Stura di Cuneo it runs along the watershed ridge to Mount Dolent (the convergence point of the Franco-Italian-Swiss border) then to the Simplon (border with Switzerland); then, leaving the Val di Vedro to Switzerland, it descends to the south-east along the Ticino Alps, cuts the north-east part of Lake Maggiore and Lake Lugano, reaching again the watershed at Spluga;
Between Spluga and Piz Lat (west of the Resia Pass, the convergence point of the Italian-Swiss-Austrian border) the border generally follows the watershed, but leaves the Poschiavo Valley (Adda) and Val Monastero ( Adige), while it includes in the kingdom the Lei valley (Reno) and the Val di Livigno, crossed by the Spöl (tributary of the Inn.)
The new border with Austria, today entirely marked by stones from Piz Lat to M. Forno (another triconfinal peak: Italy-Austria-Yugoslavia), also follows the main ridge for most of its route, however ensuring Italy the complete possession of the Resia, Brenner and Dobbiaco passes, including, in Italian territory, the head of the Drava valley with the adjacent Val di Sesto, and, further east, a considerable part of the Slizza valley (Gail, Drava) with the Tarvisio and Fusine basins. The border with Yugoslavia from Piz Lat to Kvarner is also fully determined today, subject to laborious negotiations. It runs on the main ridge of the Julian Alps up to the Nauporto pass, further south it follows a very irregular path,
Almost the entire basin of the Eneo River also remains in Yugoslav territory, the riverbed of which only in the extreme lower trunk marks the boundary of the territory of Fiume incorporated into Italy by virtue of the Rome agreement between Italy and Yugoslavia (27 January 1924) together with a very thin coastal strip that unites it to the rest of Istria. The island of Krk remained in Yugoslavia, while Italy annexed Zadar with a limited surrounding territory and the Dalmatian island of Lagosta with some adjacent smaller ones.
According to HOLIDAYSORT.COM, the area of the kingdom of Italy is therefore 310,319 sq km, divided as follows: continental part (including the smaller islands ascribed to it) 260,381 sq km; Sicily and surrounding islands 25,738 sq km; Sardinia and surrounding islands 24,090 sq km; Zadar and Lagosta 110 sq. Km. The development of the land border of the kingdom has been calculated at about 1878 km., (With France 487 km, with Switzerland 725, with Austria 421, with Yugoslavia 245) against about 8.000 km. of maritime border (coasts of the Peninsula 3980 km .; of Sicily 1115, of Sardinia 1336, de ”and other islands 1565).
Situation. – A fundamental element, which distinguishes Italy as a geographic individual, is the central situation in the Mediterranean basin, in which it, due to its distinct peninsular character, throws itself like a gigantic pier jutting out from the NW. to SE. As a Mediterranean country, Italy has, especially from the climatic point of view, common characteristics with the other two South European peninsulas, but it benefits more than them from the beneficial influences of the sea, due to its central situation and its quick shape, so no point, not even in the most massive northern part, is more than 250 km from the sea. (in the Iberian Peninsula there are points 350 away, in the Balkan Peninsula there are 390). Surrounded and penetrated by the sea, Italy is a country of intense maritime life; the Tyrrhenian Sea is a purely Italian nare, but the Adriatic is also dominated by the influence of Italy. The peninsula, with Sicily, divides the Mediterranean into two basins; the distance between Sicily and Africa is less than 150 km. (C. Boeo-C. Bon); that between Sardinia and Africa below 200 (Cagliari-Biserta). The coast NO. of Sardinia it is from the Spanish coast (Barcelona) almost as much as from Naples; Messina is located approximately the same distance from Gibraltar, Suez and Odessa. C. Passero, southeastern tip of Sicily, is about 460 km away. from Tripoli, 600 from the coast of Cyrenaica and 780 from Crete. Because of this position, Italy has always served as an intermediary between southern Europe and Africa, with which relations were always very close, starting with the Punic wars. Relations with the Balkan Peninsula are even closer, from which it is just 73 km. in the Canale d’Otranto, and in general with all the countries of the eastern Mediterranean towards which the southeastern extremity of the Peninsula extends. But relations with the Iberian Peninsula also date back to remote times, at least to the Punic wars. Despite the presence of the Alpine cloister, due to the frequency of the transversal valleys and passes in it, communications with Central Europe are also relatively easy.