The numerous emigrations that have occurred on the territory of the Ivory Coast are almost certainly related to the flourishing and dissolution of the empires and kingdoms of western Sudan (Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Mossi) and central Sudan (Kanem, Bornu, Haussa States etc.) and then placed over a period of time that goes from the century. IV to XVIII. The first contacts with the outside world date back to the second half of the century. XV, when the Portuguese recognized the entire coast of the Gulf of Guinea, destined to become in the following centuries one of the most ruthless theaters of the slave trade; however, the difficulties of climate and the human environment frustrated any attempt at European settlement. In 1687 the French Capuchin missionaries founded, with little success, a station in Assinie, nor did they endeavor to create a small French colony which had to be evacuated in 1703. Under Louis Philippe, an official mission commanded by Admiral Bouet -Willaumez he succeeded, between 1838 and 1842, in concluding some agreements with sovereigns or leaders of the Ivory Coast, securing the regions of Grand-Bassam and Assinie to France. In 1870, however, all responsibility was transferred to Verdier, a shipowner from La Rochelle who assumed the title of resident minister of France.
With the help of his agent Treich-Laplene and Captain Binger, Verdier undertook a systematic exploration of the northern parts of the country, whose most internal and inaccessible regions were secured to France between 1908 and 1915, thanks also to the construction of the railway. Abidjan-Bouaké (1913). In the context of the AOF, the Ivory Coast participated in the political evolution of the French colonial empire, first within the (1946), then with the reforms envisaged by the “Loi Cadre” (1956) and finally with the entry into the French Community (1958) which provided for the granting of internal autonomy to the overseas territories. Contrary to the idea of primary federations in French West Africa, due to its privileged economic position, the Ivory Coast authoritatively led by Félix Houphouet-Boigny, advocated a federal association between the individual territories and the France. In harmony with this attitude, he vigorously opposed the Federation of Mali (1959), giving life to the “Conseil de l’Entente”, together with the Alto Volta (today Burkina), the Dahomey (today Benin) and Niger, an essentially economic-customs union. Induced by events to follow the rapid evolutionary process of the French Community, it proclaimed itself independent on 7 August 1960. Houphouet-Boigny assumed the presidency of the Republic. Pro-Western and moderate, with a capitalist economy, the Ivory Coast has maintained considerable stability since independence, also guaranteed by the one-party system (PDCI, Ivorian Democratic Party).
According to remzfamily, changes occurred during the second half of the 1980s, in relation to the crisis caused by the fall in the price of cocoa and coffee on international markets, with strong growth in foreign debt. In particular, in the early months of 1990 the widespread discontent with corruption in the public administration and enacted austerity (with a proposal to reduce wages and salaries) caused riots and protests, the latter also spread to the army and police, which subsequently led the regime to formal acceptance of multi-partyism (May 1990). In the first presidential elections in which more candidates were in contention (October 1990), Houphouet-Boigny was confirmed again, obtaining a clear victory. On November 6, the president had the Constitution amended to organize his succession, stipulating that the president of the National Assembly would have to assume the functions of head of state in the event of his death or incapacity. In the parliamentary elections in November, which was attended by about twenty parties (most of which were able to present only a handful of candidates), the PDCI was confirmed first with a very large majority, thus demonstrating a remarkable resistance. On the death of Houphouet-Boigny (1993) another member of the PDCI, Henri Konan-Bédié, took his place and kept him in the presidential elections of October 1995, which took place in a climate of grave tension. Confirmations also for the president’s party. On the strength of these results, Konan-Bédié imposed an increasingly authoritarian regime, up to the point of banning (September 1999) the militants of the RDR (Raggruppamento Dei Repubblicani), the largest opposition party. Popular discontent, accentuated by the continuing economic crisis caused by the collapse in the price of raw materials, gave rise to a long series of riots and protests, leading to a military coup in December 1999 that put an end to forty. Laurent Gbagbo: Robert Gueï attempted a new coup by proclaiming himself the winner, but, following violent popular uprisings, he was forced to flee. Only a few months later, in January 2001, a further coup attempt was thwarted, organized by some rebel soldiers, linked to the former Republican Prime Minister Alassane Outtara, excluded from the presidential and legislative elections by virtue of a constitutional amendment in July. 2000 which forbade the candidacy to those who were not of Ivorian origin.