Braga [Portuguese bra ɣ a], district capital in northern Portugal, 208 m above sea level (2011) 136,900 residents.
University (opened in 1973); Seat of an archbishop (Primate of Portugal); Metal processing, manufacture of electrical appliances, clothing, textiles.
In the old town there are numerous church buildings (Misericórdia church in the style of the Italian Renaissance, etc.) the cathedral, begun at the end of the 11th century, with a Gothic choir and choir chapels, which was also equipped in the Emanuel style from 1509 (J. de Castilho); magnificent organ case (1730) and rich church treasures; Library in the former Bishop’s Palace (over 10,000 manuscripts, including some from the 9th century). Town houses and aristocratic palaces from the 18th century have been preserved. The late Baroque pilgrimage church of Bom Jesús do Monte with double staircases is located in the eastern area of the city, and to the west of Braga is the Visigoth oratory São Frutuoso de Montélios (after 660).
According to intershippingrates, Braga, founded by the Romans (Bracara Augusta), was the center of the Celtic Callaici Bracarii or Bracarenses (part of the Callaics) and became the capital of the Gallaecia province under Diocletian. Diocese since the 4th century at the latest (archbishopric since 1100). In the early 5th century capital of the Suebi, Visigothic around 485, Braga was conquered by the Moors in 716 and regained by Ferdinand I of Castile-León between 1055 and 1058; it was the residence of the Portuguese kings at the end of the 11th and beginning of the 12th centuries.
Vila Nova de Gaia
Vila Nova de Gaia [ vila n ɔ va də ɣ a a], a town in the district of Porto, Portugal, the Douro in front of Porto, (2011) 186 500 residents.
Museum; Center of port wine production, with numerous cellars; Mechanical engineering, textile, shoe, chemical, ceramic and food industries.
In the upper town, the former monastery of Nossa Senhora da Serra do Pilar; the church, a domed rotunda, was built in 1598–1602.
Settled as early as Roman times, the place was first mentioned in the 13th century under its current name.
Porto [ p ɔ rto, Portuguese portu], formerly Oporto [u p ɔ te], port city in northern Portugal, on the right bank of the Douro cañonartig cut, 5 km above its confluence with the Atlantic (2011) 237 600 residents.
Administrative seat of the district of Porto; catholic bishopric; University (founded 1911), art academy, German and French cultural institute, port wine cellars; Museums; Theater, opera. Porto is the only Portuguese city with a greater industrial tradition; the diverse industry is concentrated in the north and west of the city, v. a. along the road to the international airport: petroleum refinery, metal, chemical, textile, leather (including shoes), rubber, ceramic, tobacco, food and luxury goods industries; Tourism. To the north of Matosinhos is the port of Leixões (Porto de Leixões), which was laid out in 1884–92 . A two-story road bridge (Ponte Dom Luís I) built in 1881–85 connects the Vila Nova de Gaia (seat of the port wine cellars) on the left Douroufer with the old town. For 2001, Porto was named “European City of Culture”.
The cathedral (Sé, originally Romanesque, renovated in the 17th / 18th centuries) with a silver altar (1632–1732) in the Capela-mór and Gothic cloister (with Azulejos of the 18th century), the Episcopal Palace (18th century), the Jesuit Church of the Grilos (by B. Álvares, Completed 1614-22; Facade with triple gable) and the former monastery church of Santa Clara (1416 ff.; interior decoration of the 18th century). To the west, the São Francisco Church (originally Gothic, redesigned in Baroque style in the 17th / 18th centuries), next to it the stock exchange (Palácio da Bolsa) built in 1842 instead of the burnt down monastery, further north the São Pedro dos Clérigos Church (1732–50; freestanding, 75 m high bell tower, the symbol of the city) and the former royal palace (1795, today Museu Nacional de Soares dos Reis with a collection of paintings and sculptures, ceramics, porcelain, goldsmithing, etc.). To the left of the Douro is the former monastery church of Nossa Senhora do Pilar (1540–1602) with a large rotunda. A. Siza Vieira created next to university buildings (1988 ff.) v. a. Residential quarters (Bouça, 1973–77; São Victor, 1974–77) and developed the designs for the Serralves Museum of Contemporary Art (opened in 1999). 500 m east of the Ponte Dom Luís I (1881–85) is the “Maria Pia” railway bridge built by A. G. Eiffel in 1877/78. To the north-west is the Romanesque church de Cedofeita (founded in 559, probably new building from the 12th century). In the north-west, on the Rotunda da Boavista, the »Casa da Música« concert hall was built in 2001–05 according to plans by R. Koolhaas in a futuristic design language.
Since the 1st century BC The city was in Roman hands and was called Portus Cale (Portucale). The name of the country Portugal is derived from this form. In 540 Porto was conquered by the Visigoths, from 716–997 it was under Arab rule, in the 11th century it became the capital of the county of Portucalia (Portugal), and it remained a residence until 1260. Porto was mainly during the Spanish occupation (1580–1640) repeatedly the scene of uprisings; 1805-09 it was occupied by the French; In 1832/33 it was besieged by the supporters of Michael I (Dom Miguels) and partially destroyed.
Lisbon, capital and largest city of Portugal, with (2011) 552 700 residents.
The city is located on the sea-like mouth of the Tejo, near the Atlantic Ocean. As the leading cultural center in Portugal, the city has several universities, academies and museums. Lisbon is a lively port and trading city and hosted the world exhibition EXPO 1998.
Fortress, churches, monasteries, numerous magnificent buildings and the famous old town (Alfama) make Lisbon a popular travel destination. The Torre de Belém and the monumental Jeronimos Monastery are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The city was two-thirds destroyed by an earthquake in 1755, but quickly rebuilt.