According to loverists, the architecture of the 19th century also dominated in Portugal by historicism (among other things with neo-Romanesque, neo-Moorish, new-Manueline stylistic devices). A highlight is the Palácio da Pena in Sintra (1840–85), commissioned byFerdinand II for the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha family.

Industrialists returning from Brazil had large palaces with extensive parks built in the historicist style, including in the area around Sintra (Palácio da Regaleira, 1904-10) and in Figueira da Foz (Palácio Sotto-Mayor, 1900 following). Among the technical buildings stands v. a. the double-deck iron bridge “Dom Luís I.” (1881–85) over the Douro in Porto and the Santa Justa elevator (1901) with a lifting height of 32 m by Raoul Mesnier de Ponsard (* 1849, † 1914) in Lisbon. Art Nouveau forms appeared relatively late, especially in facade decorations made of tiles. In the first half of the 20th century, Raul Lino (* 1879, † 1974) sat down for his type the Alentejan “Casa Portuguesa”. Modern and contemporary architecture is largely represented by the “School of Lisbon” and the “School of Porto”, influenced by Italian rationalism and postmodernism, under the leadership of A. Siza Vieira.


In the second half of the 19th century, António Soares dos Reis (* 1847, † 1889) dominated Porto with a strong connection to France. In the first half of the 20th century, the sculptors António Teixeira Lopes (* 1866, † 1942), among others with Art Nouveau forms, Francisco Franco (* 1885, † 1955), with a formal language strongly connected to the older tradition, and Diogo de Macedo (* 1889, † 1959), who particularly valued the aesthetics of Art Deco. In the 20th century, as in painting, a stylistic pluralism with neufigurative, surreal and abstract forms prevailed, whose typical representatives João Fragoso (* 1913, † 2000), Virgilio Domingos (* 1932), José Rodrigues (* 1936, † 2016) and Alberto Carneiro (* 1937, † 2017) are. João Cutileiro (* 1937, † 2021) renewed Portuguese sculpture with the antiheroic conception of his figure of Sebastião (1973) in Lagos.


The painters D. A. de Sequeira with religious representations, Tomás José Da Anunciação (* 1818, † 1879) with landscape paintings, Francisco Metrass (* 1825, † 1861) with history paintings, Luiz de Miranda Pereira Visconde de Menezes (* 1817)were close to French realism , † 1878) and Miguel Angelo Lupi (* 1826, † 1883) with portraits. The official art of a more conservative character was represented by Henrique Pousão (* 1859, † 1884), José Malhõa (* 1855, † 1933) and Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro, called Columbano (* 1857, † 1929). Despite the temporary political isolation under A. Salazar The development of Portuguese painting in the 20th century is no different from that in the rest of Europe. Maria Elena Vieira Da Silva (* 1908, † 1992), who settled in Paris in 1947, was outstanding. Belated surrealist tendencies characterize the work of António Pedro da Costa (* 1909, † 1966) and António Dacosta (* 1914, † 1990), among others. The works of Dordio Gomes (* 1890, † 1976), José Sobral de Almada Negreiros (* 1893, † 1970), Carlos Botelho (* 1899, † 1982) and Paula Rego (* 1935) are characterized by a high degree of individuality and cannot be assigned to any of the current trends.

Tile painting experienced its first high point at the end of the 19th century with the work of the caricaturist and ceramist Rafael Bordalo-Pinheiro (* 1846, † 1905) and the decorations of the train stations (including by João Colaço, * 1868, † 1942). New impetus given to it, among others, Jorge Barradas (* 1894, † 1971) with relief compositions Negreiros with facade panels, Maria Keil (* 1914, † 2012) with their decorations for Metro stations in Lisbon (since the 1950s) and Querubim Lapa (* 1925, † 2016), whose virtuoso relief tiles still have an educational effect on the art of tiling, which is valued in Portugal.

Tapestry art

With the reopening of the tapestry factory “Tapetes de Portalegre Lda.”, Which existed from 1772–1897 in Portalegre in 1946, what had been an important branch of Portuguese art in the past was revitalized. Since then, the knitted fabrics made from boxes by J. Lurçat , Le Corbusier and numerous important Portuguese artists enjoy an outstanding reputation to this day.

Portuguese music

portuguese music. Portuguese folk music retains Moorish elements in its melismatics and partly unbound rhythm, and church modes predominate in harmony. In Fado, folklore is combined with urban-civilizing musical language. In the 12th century v. a. the monasteries (including Braga, Coimbra) emerged as musical centers. From the 13./14. Troubadour art flourished in the 19th century, no melodies are known. The polyphony of the 15th / 16th centuries Century was under Dutch influence, so with Damião de Góis (* 1502, † 1574). Portuguese music reached a high point at the Cathedral of Évora under its conductor Manuel Mendes (* around 1547, † 1605); Significantly next to it the school of Vila Viçosa, among others. with King John IV and João Lourenço Rebello (* 1610, † 1661). Manuel Rodrigues Coelho (* around 1555, † around 1635), organist at the Lisbon court, made music for keyboard instruments (»Flores de musica«, 1620).

With King John V’s (1706–50) preference for Italian opera, it came to the fore at the beginning of the 18th century. Important representatives of the Italian style were Francisco António de Almeida (* around 1702, † 1755), José Carlos de Seixas (* 1704, † 1742; in addition to the 5th »Brandenburg Concerto« by J. S. Bach with the »Concerto A major« for harpsichord one of the first solo works for keyboard instruments), João de Sousa Carvalho (* 1745, † 1798) and his famous student Marcos Antônio da Fonseca Portugal (* 1762, † 1830). By João Domingos Bomtempo (* 1775, † 1842), the first director of the Conservatory founded in Lisbon in 1835, increasingly national tendencies emerged, most effective with the Liszt student José Vianna da Motta (* 1868, † 1948). In the 20th century, the general European development followed, among other things. R. Coelho and Fernando Lopes-Graça (* 1906, † 1994). Representatives of the Portuguese avant-garde include: Jorge Rosado Peixinho (* 1940, † 1995), Luís Filipe Pires (* 1934, † 2015), who was among others influential in South America. E. Nunes active in Germany and from the post-war generation Joâo Pedro Oliveira (* 1959), António Pinho Vargas (* 1951) and Alexandre Delgado (* 1965).

Portuguese Arts Since 19th Century

Portuguese Arts Since 19th Century
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