Due to the hunger catastrophe especially since 1992 as a result of the civil war, which could not be ended despite repeated attempts, the multinational military action “Restore Hope” began after a resolution of the UN Security Council on December 3, 1992. to enforce the distribution of relief supplies and disarm the rival parties, as well as to restore peace and help rebuild political institutions and the economy. In 1993/94 around 30,000 soldiers from 20 countries took part in the campaign, including a contingent from the Bundeswehr (stationed at Belet Huen). While the food situation of the population could be improved, the planned disarmament of the militias led to bloody fighting v. a. between UN units and the militia under Aidid. After the failure of a national reconciliation conference, which resolved to form a provisional government in March 1993, as well as numerous peace talks mediated by the UN, the USA officially began withdrawing its troops on December 17, 1993; by March 1994 the troops of all participating western states followed, in March 1995 the last UN troops from African and Asian countries. According to usprivateschoolsfinder, several attempts at a peaceful settlement of the civil war that flared up again and again between different militias remained unsuccessful; On the contrary, at the end of 1994 / beginning of 1995 the fighting spread to previously little contested parts of the country, whereupon numerous aid organizations withdrew. During the fighting on August 1, 1996 he was Aidid, who had himself proclaimed president on June 15, 1995, was killed. His son Hussain Mohammed Aidid then appointed himself president. Repeated reconciliation conferences could not end the domestic chaos, the power vacuum and the civil war in which around 450 clans took part and the v. a. It was supported by the two “presidents” and main rivals, Ali Mahdi Mohammed, who formed the Somali National Salvation Council (SNSC) with other militia leaders in 1997, and H. M. Aidid (SNA). Another group was formed by the troops under Hassan Ali Atto, who were formed by H. M. Aidid had split off. A peace agreement signed in 1997 was also not adhered to. The situation was exacerbated by drought, floods (especially in 1997), hunger and epidemics as well as flows of refugees. Abdullahi Yusuf Achmed (* 1934) declared Puntland on July 23, 1998 as an autonomous republic. Finally, after negotiations that began in Djibouti in May 2000 and in which numerous clan representatives took part, a transitional parliament (parliamentarians appointed by the clan chiefs) could be set up on August 13, 2000, with Abdikassim Salad Hassan taking effect on August 27, 2000 appointed President. However, since the interim parliament and the state president had not been recognized by all clan chiefs, it came about in the following period v. a. in Mogadishu there was repeated fighting between troops of the transitional government and units of different clans. In October 2002, at a peace conference in Eldoret (Kenya), numerous representatives of the most influential clans agreed with the transitional government, which controlled only part of the country, on a renewed ceasefire and the continuation of the peace talks.

After repeatedly signaling their readiness to end the internal conflict, the clan leaders signed an interim constitution in Nairobi at the end of January 2004, including: a federal structure of the country and a parliament with 275 members included. However, no representatives of the Republic of Somaliland, which was proclaimed in 1991, were involved in the talks in Nairobi and the agreement concluded there. For the first time since 1991, a transitional parliament recognized by almost all conflict parties was formed in August 2004, which in October 2004 appointed the previous president of the autonomous region of Puntland, Abdullahi Yusuf Achmed, elected President of Somalia. On January 13, 2005, the Somali parliament, which for security reasons first met in Nairobi (Kenya) and from February 2006 in Baidoa (south-west Somalia), confirmed the newly appointed interim government.

As the fighting between Islamic militias and local warlords in the capital Mogadishu intensified from November 2005, the Union of Islamic Courts (UIC; German: Union of Islamic Courts) gained the upper hand over a US-backed alliance against terrorism, After the expulsion of several warlords, the UIC, which was formed from the merger of eleven sharia 2004 enlarged their influence in other parts of the country. Before the fighting, tens of thousands fled to neighboring Kenya. Ethiopia attacked openly in the inter-Somali conflict and went together with troops of the transitional government militarily against the UIC before that could be driven out of Mogadishu. The United Nations authorized AU blue helmet troops for a peace mission (African Union Mission to Somalia; AMISOM). On the first third of 2007, the first units of the peacekeeping force arrived in Somalia. Nevertheless, the military clashes continued. Hundreds of thousands fled the combat zones. In Eritrea, directed against the transitional government Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) was formed in September, 2007.

To combat the threat posed by Somali piracy, the UN Security Council authorized foreign States on military intervention in Somali territorial waters. The EU started the mission “Atalanta”, and Germany participated in the December of 2008.

In 2008, it was not possible to contain the various conflicts and stabilize the country. An arbitrated in Djibouti by the UN on 6. 10. 2008 peace agreement between the government and opposition was boycotted by the main faction of the Islamists. From the various struggles that emerged from the UIC was al-Shabab emerged stronger. Their continued attacks on the capital Mogadishu and the seat of government Baidoa claimed many lives and drove the population to flee. On December 29, 2008, President Abdullahi Yusuf Akhmed announced his resignation.

Somalia Recent History

Somalia Recent History
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