In 1932 all literary associations were dissolved by the party. It was replaced by the unified Soviet Writers’ Union, at whose first congress (1934) all art and literature were committed to socialist realism. In addition to M. Gorki’s novel »Mat ‘« (1907; German »Die Mutter«), works by D. A. Furmanow (* 1891, † 1926; »Čapaev«, 1923; German »Tschapajew«), F. W. Gladkow (»Cement«, 1925; German “Zement”), A. A. Fadejew (“Razgrom”, 1927; German “Die Neunzehn”) and NA Ostrowski (»Kak žakaljalas ‘stal’«, 1932–34; German »How steel was hardened«). The demand for “partiality” and “loyalty to the people”, for the “positive hero” and conflict-free solutions led to a schematic of the characters and situations as well as a decline in the artistic level. All literary works were subject to rigorous censorship. Many topics were made taboo. The writers, who refused to bow to ideological guidelines, could no longer have their works printed and had to endure severe personal restrictions. This affected such important personalities as the poet AA Akhmatova and M. A. Bulgakov , whose novel “Master i Margarita” (1966–67; German “The Master and Margarita”), one of the most important Russian works of the 20th century, was written during this period (1929–40). Again a wave of emigration began (i.a. J. I. Samjatin , 1931), but many perished in the Stalinist persecution (I. E. Babel , OE Mandelstam , B. A. Pilnjak , D. I. Charms and others). A. P. Platonow , who sees himself as a proletarian author (»Čevengur«, 1927–29; German »On the way to Tschevengur«), was ostracized, even M. A. Scholochow , a follower of Stalin, was unable to write the novel “Tichij Don” (1928–40; German “The silent Don”). Some writers abandoned their older works and adapted (W. P. Katajew ; A. N. Tolstoy , “Choždenie po mukam”, 1920–41, German “Der Leidensweg”). The genre system of socialist realism was determined by the production novel, the educational novel, the novel epics and the mass song. The tendency towards the large form was reflected in novel cycles (K. A. Fedin, W. P. Katajew, W. A. ​​Kawerin, I. G. Ehrenburg).

During the Second World War, Soviet literature was expected to have an impact on politics, so that genres such as the sketch and the political poem dominated. In spite of this, he wrote some notable poems (O. Berggolz ), poems (A. T. Twardowski ) and novels (K. M. Simonow , W. P. Nekrassow , A. A. Fadejew). Excluded authors such as BL Pasternak and AA Akhmatova were also allowed to publish during the war. However, a party resolution of August 1946 again demanded that art and literature should be aligned with the line (the requirements of the secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, A. A. Schdanow, were decisive). A pseudoscientific »theory of non- conflicting« gained ground, which also authors such as K. G. Paustowski (»Povest ‘o žizni«, 1946–63; German »Stories of Life«) and L. M. Leonow (»Russkij les«, 1953; German » The Russian Forest «) could hardly escape. In the post-war period, the Stalin prizes governed the canon of literature, which of course could also honor a work like WP Nekrassov’s “V okoprach Stalingrada” (1945/46; German “In den Stalingrad”).

A change only occurred after Stalin’s death (1953) and N. S. Khrushchev’s criticism of Stalinism (20th party congress, 1956). This change, named after IG Ehrenburg’s novel “Ottepel ‘” (1954) “Thaw” (also in German), brought many writers back from the GULAG and rehabilitation. Through the so-called thaw controversy (IG Ehrenburg: “On the work of the writer”, 1953), literature was traced back to the path of unvarnished realism. The literature could now criticize the personality cult (W. D. Dudinzew, W. Panowa , J. A. Jewtuschenko, IG Ehrenburgs Memoirs »Ljudi, gody, žizn ‘«, 1960–65; German »People, Years, Life«) and began to tell the truth about the camps (A. I. Solzhenitsyn »Odin den ‘Ivana Denisoviča«, 1962; German »A day in the life of Ivan Denisovich«) and the suffering caused by wars (BS Okudschawa; Grigori Jakowlewitsch Baklanow [* 1923, † 2009]; J. W. Bondarew ). The rebellious »Estradenlyric« (J. A. Yevtuschenko, Bella Achmadulina, A. A. Vosnesensky) and the stylistically trained on Western patterns »Jeansprosa« (W. P. Axjonow) became particularly popular genres. W. A. ​​Solouchin and J. P. Kasakow founded the village prose with their poetic stories, which thematize the close connection between humans and nature. The outstanding works of world literature of this time, however, such as the poetry by I. A. Brodski and the system-critical novels by BL Pasternak (“Doktor Živago”, 1957; German “Doktor Schiwago”), W. S. Grossman (“Žizn ‘i sud’ba”, 1960; German “Leben und Schicksal”), A. I. Solzhenitsyn (“Rakovyj korpus”, 1968; German “Krebsstation”), A. N. Rybakow (“Deti Arbata”, 1956–66; German “Die Kinder vom Arbat”) and others, were allowed for political reasons still not appear in Russia.

After NS Khrushchev was replaced by Brezhnev, a period of stagnation began for Russian literature, during which many authors published their unprinted or forbidden works in samizdat or “tamizdat” (abroad). At the beginning of the 1970s, a new wave of emigration resulted in a major bloodletting. “Dissidents” such as IA Brodski, A. D. Sinjawski , AI Solzhenitsyn, A. A. Galitsch , J. W. Mamlejew , W. J. Maximow , W. P. Nekrasov, S. Sokolow , Naum Korschawin (* 1925), A. A. Amalrik , A. A. Zinoviev , IB Ratuschinskaja , F. N. Gorenstein , W. N. Woinowitsch, L. S. Kopelew , W. P. Axjonow, B. Chasanow , G. N. Wladimow and others. left the USSR or were forced to leave the country.

However, some of the system-critical authors who remained in the country painted an illusion-free picture of Soviet society by ignoring the censorship. This applied to the new prose by W. P. Katajew, S. P. Salygin , B. L. Wassiljew , W. F. Tendryakov and F. A. Iskander , the poems and songs of B. S. Okudschawa (who also wrote historical novels with many allusions) and W. S. Vysotsky , the dramas by W. S. Rosow and A. W. Vampilow . The village prose by W. M. Schukschin, W. G. Rasputin (»Proščanie s Materoj«, 1976; German »Farewell to Matjora«), W. P. Astafjew, B. A. Moschajew and F. Abramow depicts the difficult life in the country without whitewashing, the deep contradictions between the official phrases and reality, the destruction of the environment. The critical works by J. W. Trifonow (“Obmen”, 1969; German “Der Tausch”), W. S. Makanin and A. G. Bitow are referred toas “city prose”. The Soviet present was also very critical of the Russian-writing Kirghiz T. Aitmatov seen, whose myths and folk traditions processing works in this time BC. a. became known abroad. Other authors of non-Russian origin also enriched Russian literature of the 1970s and 1980s, such as the Chuvash G. N. Aigi , the Aware R. Gamsatow , the Korean A. A. Kim and the Chukchi J. Rytchëu .

“Samizdat” and “Tamizdat” publications had a strong impact on post-Soviet literature. So were G. N. Wladimow (“Vernyj Ruslan,” 1963-65; German “The story of the faithful dog Ruslan”), W. T. Shalamov (“Kolymskie rasskazy,” 1966-76; German “Tales from Kolyma”) and L. Petruschewskaja formative for the future currents oriented towards realistic spelling, while WW Erofejew , S. Sokolow (“Škola dlja durakov”, 1976; German “Die Schule der Stupmen”), A. G. Bitow (“Puškinskij dom”, 1978; German “Das Pushkinhaus”), WP Axjonow, J. W. Mamlejew, J. W. Charitonow (* 1940, † 1981), G. W. Sapgir (* 1928, † 1999) and others. prepared the later postmodernism. W. N. Woinowitsch (“Žizn ‘i neobyčajnye priključenija soldata Ivana Čonkina”, 1963-70; German “The memorable adventures of the soldier Ivan Chonkin”) influenced satire, the brothers A. N. and B. N. Strugatzki the science fiction, WW Kasakow the absurd prose and Drama. The Alamanache “Metropol” (1979) and “Katalog” (1980), which the authors published by the censorship authorities, played a decisive role.

In the mid-1980s, under the sign of the politics of perestroika and glasnost, M. S. Gorbachev began a fundamental liberalization of cultural policy. The confrontation with the past was more open and ruthless than before, the works of the emigrants, the persecuted and murdered writers, but also the secret texts by M. Gorki, AA Akhmatova or LK Tschukowskaja became accessible to the Russian reader and determined the discussion for a long time literary criticism. AA Akhmatova, OE Mandelstam, MI Tsvetaeva and BL Pasternak finally became honored as the most important Russian poet of the 20th century. 1987–89 there was a reduction in censorship, 1989–91 there were controversial debates about the further path of literature, the rejection of »socialist realism«, the establishment of private publishers and magazines and the development of a literature completely independent of the previous spelling. The Soviet Writers’ Union disintegrated. In 1991, a conservative, nationalist »Russian Writers ‘Union« and a liberal »Russian Writers’ Union« faced each other. In the same year the Russian PEN was founded (first president: A. N. Rybakow). Newer works were hotly debated, some of which had an openly journalistic tendency to deal with previous taboos such as the destruction of nature, the increase in violence, the political abuse of science or the crimes of Stalin and his party. These include W. G. Rasputin’s story »Požar« (1985; German »Der Brand«), the novels »Placha« (1986; German among others under the title »Die Richtstatt«) by T. Aitmatow, »Pečal’nyj detektiv« (1987; German »The sad detective«) by WP Astafjew, »Zubr« (1987; German among other things under the title »Der Genetiker«) by D. A. Granin, »Belye odeždy« (1987; German »The white robes«) by W. D. Dudinzew, »Nočevala tučka zolotaja« (1988; German among other things under the title »Slept a golden cloud«) by A. J. Pristawkin, the plays by MF Shatrow (»Dal’še… dal’še… dal’še!«, 1988; German »Weiter… weiter… weiter!«) And the memoirs of NJ Mandelstam and JS Ginsburg.

Soviet Literature

Soviet Literature
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