According to diseaseslearning, Madeira is a Portuguese island southwest of the Portuguese capital Lisbon, west of the coast of Morocco in the Atlantic Ocean. In addition to the main island of the same name, the Madeira archipelago includes the small island of Porto Santo and two uninhabited archipelagos, the Ilhas Dessertas and the Ilhas Selvagenes. Together they form the autonomous province of Madeira and thus belong to the European Union.
The island’s capital, Funchal, is located on the south coast. The city is located in a bay like an amphitheater. The city center is near the port. The central place is the church Se, the former bishopric. On the edge of the pedestrian zone there is the market hall and the cable car to Monte, which is well worth seeing and which leads directly to the botanical garden. In addition to the variety of flora and fauna, you can enjoy a view of the island’s capital from several vantage points.
Machio is the second largest settlement on Madeira after Funchal. Worth seeing is the small church with a generously decorated altar. There is a small triangular fortress near the beach that was supposed to protect the city from pirates.
Madeira is characterized by low and high mountains, the coastal of the island are often pronounced as cliffs. The cliffs drop below sea level up to 4,000 m to the bottom of the sea. The highest peaks of Madeira are found in the center of the island, here in Pico Ruivo 1,862 m are reached. Madeira is of volcanic origin and, strictly speaking, only represents the upper part of a volcanic system. Madeira’s mountains consist of lava rock and are very rugged.
In the north of Madeira it is often rainy, the south of the island can be described as subtropically warm. It is warmest in the summer months July and August, during this period, maximum temperatures of around 25 ° C are reached. But even in the coolest months of December, January and February the thermometer still rises to 19 ° C.
The Portuguese island of Madeira is located in the Atlantic Ocean, about 600 kilometers west of the African coast. The geographical location, the temperature-equalizing effect of the ocean and the mountainous landscape ensure that Madeira enjoys a very pleasant climate. Generally Madeira is sunny with an average of five to six hours of sunshine per day in winter and seven to eight hours in summer. However, these are mean values, due to the mountains on Madeira one can find numerous regional and local climatic characteristics.
The mean annual temperature at the coast can reach about 25 ° C in the south (August). In winter the thermometer still rises to around 19 to 20 ° C.
The subtropical climate of Madeira is comparable to the Mediterranean and the Coastal regions from California. The Atlantic Ocean moderates temperatures so the island never suffers from extreme heat or cold.
The winter months in Madeira are humid, especially at higher altitudes. Stormy and cloudy weather conditions can last for days, but there are also periods of good weather with mild temperatures. At sea level, the days can be cool and cloudy until April, and even longer in the mountains.
The north of Madeira is more humid, as the northeast trade wind rains down here, the south is comparatively dry.
Between May and September it is hardly cloudy, only occasionally rain falls, fog can occur.
Best travel time for Madeira
Travel to Madeira is possible all year round due to the mild climate.
The period between May and October is best for a Madeira vacation. During this time it is a little warmer on the island, but the Atlantic does not reach pleasant bathing temperatures until September.
In winter, hikers and cyclists come to Madeira to do sports in the southern part of the island. During this time it is warmer and drier than in the north or center of Madeira.
In spring the offer flowers Madeira a wonderful sight.
The autonomous province of Madeira is a group of islands in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, about 1,000 kilometers from the motherland Portugal. the Archipelago Madeira is made up of the main island of the same name, the smaller island of Porto Santo and the two uninhabited archipelagos Ilhas Desertas and Ilhas Selvagens. The total area of the archipelago is 794 square kilometers, of which the island of Madeira occupies 741 square kilometers, while the remaining 45 square kilometers are accounted for by the island of Porto Santo. The capital of Madeira is Funchal. With around 265,000 residents, the archipelago takes up around 2.5% of the total population of Portugal.
Madeira is mainly made up of low and high mountain ranges whose highest peaks rise in the interior of the island. At 1,862 meters, Pico Ruivo is the highest mountain on the island. Together with the Pico do Arieiro and two other peaks, this mountain forms the high mountains of Madeira. The mountain range, which consists of rugged and rugged lava, has many beautiful and impressive rock formations. The west of Madeira is dominated by the Paúl da Serra high moor, which consists of a flat plateau at an altitude of 1,300 to 1,500 meters. The high moor is bounded in the north by the deeply cut valley of the Ribera da Janela, which is the longest river in Madeira at twelve kilometers. The coast of the island falls steeply into the sea in rugged cliffs.
Madeira lies on the African plate and, like the neighboring archipelagos of the Azores and Canary Islands, is of volcanic origin. The archipelago shows only the topmost tip of the enormous volcanic system, about a quarter of which protrudes from the sea. The cliffs reach down to the seabed, which is 4,000 meters deep here. Madeira was formed in several phases of volcanic eruptions, the first of which took place around 18 million years ago. The last major volcanic activity began around 500,000 years ago, which is why Madeira is a relatively young island from a geological perspective.
The rivers in Madeira usually have a very steep gradient and after many waterfalls and meandering rivers all lead into the sea. The high mountains cannot be used because of their thin stone and gravel soils. On the other hand, fertile soil was deposited at the foot of the slopes, which, like the small high plateaus, is used intensively for agriculture.
Madeira – places of interest
Madeira is known to most visitor as the flower island. The Madeiras come mostly from Great Britain. The most of tourists attractions can be found in Funchal or Camara de Lobos. Churchill painted in the latter place for a long time. During this time he stayed in the luxury hotel Reids Place, which opened in 1891. The Reid Palace is one of the Leading Hotels of the World and is known far beyond the island.
Madeira Island is also known as a hiker’s paradise, as there are spring to summer temperatures here all year round.
You can hike particularly well along the levadas, where about three hundred years ago Moorish slaves laid paths to maintain the irrigation canals.
The mountain hiking route between Pico do Arieiro and Mount Pico Ruvio is also interesting. It is recommended to start the hike in the morning to enjoy a wonderful view, because around noon the mountains are in the clouds.
Madeira has hardly any beaches to offer, but some have been created in recent years. These are either natural rock bathing bays or fortified natural rock bathing bays. There are also small artificial sandy beaches on Madeira, such as Calheta.
The underwater national park in Canico, which has existed there for twenty-five years, is definitely worth seeing. You can go diving here.
Another attraction of Madeira is the island capital Funchal with its market and the Sé cathedral. The well-kept Blandys Garden is also worth a visit. You should also have seen the Botanical Garden in Funchal, where you can visit the huge parrot park Jardim Botanico.
A highlight are the laurel forests or Cabo Girao, the second highest steep cliff in the world.