Almost the whole territory is subject to an essentially oceanic climate, uniformly mild and rainy; this is the result of the vast maritime opening of the country, also devoid of internal mountainous barriers and in a marginal position with respect to the block of continental lands, and of its shape, which expands precisely in the more temperate southern section; the influence of the warm Gulf Stream is fundamental, thanks to which, at the same latitude, winter temperatures are much higher than in central-eastern Europe. Warm winters, cool summers, constant humidity are also very important factors for the population of the islands. Variations however are not lacking from part to part; in fact, the influences of the sea air masses on the western side are more sensitive, while in the E, especially in winter, the continental anticyclonic ones are more marked. The temperatures thus vary somewhat from W to E, especially as regards the winter thermal values: in the coldest month, January, it goes from 3.5 ºC in the London area to 6.5 ºC in Cornwall, the warmest region of the Great Britain (to the extent that even palm trees and other subtropical essences can be found). On the other hand, the isotherm of 16.5 ºC, northern Scotland from that of 13 ºC. The rains fall frequently in every season; however, the eastern, more “continental” side of the country is much less humid (London and England in general receive less than 700 mm of rainfall per year), while on the slopes of the Highlands more exposed to sea air masses they are even reached 5000 mm per year. There are frequent fogs, due to the meeting of the warm and humid air carried by the Gulf Stream with the cold one of the interior.
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY. DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION
In terms of population distribution, there are significant differences from region to region and this is due to the depopulation that has mainly affected certain poor regions of northern Scotland to the advantage of the more active and urbanized areas of England (the so-called drift to the south, drift to the south). There was essentially a phenomenon of concentration in a few areas that continued the one started with the industrial revolution. The areas favored by this were the area around the Thames estuary, where London is located, the mining and coal mining areas of the Midlands and the Scottish Lowlands (with Glasgow and Edinburgh). This is where the other metropolises are located, which with their populous surroundings register densities of over 500 residents / km². Outside these areas there are regional territories gravitating to large cities and the poorest, marginal, sparsely populated areas. The most densely populated region is England with 413 residents / km²; the density in Wales is 149 residents / km²; in Scotland 68 residents / km² and in Northern Ireland 135 residents / km 2 (for all regions the estimate is from 2013). Urbanism throughout Great Britain is very developed and overall affects a large part of the population.
According to youremailverifier, the phenomenon of high urban concentration is a characteristic condition of the country, whose anthropic geography is based on its large urbanized areas, which refer to one or more fundamental cities, which then attracted others, giving rise to those “Conurbations” that have their original models in Great Britain. The largest conurbation is undoubtedly that of London, which, together with 32 metropolitan suburbs (boroughs), forms the county of Greater London (Greater London; 8,416,535, 2013 estimate) which includes a whole array of satellite cities; the others are those of the West Midlands headed by Birmingham, from South East Lancashire that hinges on Manchester, from West Yorkshire ruled by the two cities of Leeds and Bradford, Merseyside coordinated by Liverpool, Tyneside headed by Newcastle-upon-Tyne. In Scotland, industrial functions and related urban developments are concentrated on the Glasgowcon urbation (Glasgow city 593,200 residents, 2012), the Central Clydeside, and in neighboring cities, a task undertaken in Northern Ireland by Belfast (280,537 residents according to an estimate of 2013), which also carries out the main port activities. Within the frames of these areas of enhanced urbanism are inserted isolated cities, sometimes of considerable size, small towns or large centers corresponding to the old markets that hold the fabric in turn settlement of the countryside, dotted with farms, country houses (hamlets), castles, small villages. During the last decades of the twentieth century, however, there have been significant changes in the field of population distribution and little by little a trend towards counter-urbanization has established itself: large metropolitan areas have begun to lose residents in favor of the lower urban network and peripheral regions. Not only all the main conurbations of the country, but also the satellite centers have recorded heavy demographic declines; the loss of Greater London is particularly significant, since its population has decreased by 500,000 since the mid-1980s. Economic causes are at the basis of this turnaround, which has shaken traditional territorial balances. Indeed, the crisis of the manufacturing industry and the basic sectors, as well as the rise of new activities in the field of business services have contributed to the removal of labor from the coal and steel cities and from the wool districts, in search of new job opportunities. Among the areas affected by positive balances we should mention some coastal areas of the Channel, due to the mass influx of elderly people attracted by the favorable climatic conditions, as well as the region of Aberdeen (Scotland), since the exploitation of North Sea oil resources began.