(Công Hòa Xa Hôi Chu ‘Nghiã Viêt Nam). State of Southeast Asia (331,212 km²). Capital: Hanoi. Administrative division: provinces (61), municipalities (2), cities (1). Population: 86,211,000 (2008 estimate). Language: Vietnamese. Religion: Buddhists 66.7%, Catholics 7.7%, syncretic religions 5.6%, others 20%. Currency unit: dong (10 hao = 100 xu). Human Development Index: 0.718 (114th place). Borders: China (N), South China Sea (E and S), Gulf of Siam (SE), Cambodia and Laos (W). Member of: ASEAN and UN.
The hot-humid climate is at the origin of an evergreen tropical forest which is rich and prosperous in the South, while in the North it assumes a deciduous character. Bamboo, palm trees, hard and precious wood trees dominate. Mangroveformations occur along the southern coasts; conifers appear on the highest hills. The forest cover has however been largely reduced with the expansion of rice cultivation except on the hills, where it is still relatively extensive. Viet Nam is home to a rich fauna, consisting of over 7000 species. The forests are inhabited by large mammals (elephants, deer, tigers, etc.), while throughout the country there are a large number of small animals (monkeys, hares, otters, etc.), reptiles and birds. Only at the beginning of the new millennium did scientists identify two new species in the territory: the muntjac, a small cervid, and the saola, a bovid among the rarest mammals in the world. There are many environmental issues to be resolved: the “slash and burn” agricultural methods have led to deforestation and impoverishment of the soil, while the pollution and overexploitation of fisheries threaten marine life. The availability of drinking water is limited due to groundwater contamination; industrialization and the consequent migration to cities damage the environment, especially in Hanoi and Thanh Phô Hô Chí Minh. Furthermore, during the war, especially in the last times of the conflict and in the North of the country, the Vietnamese forests have experienced a colossal destruction (we are talking about at least 2 million ha of forests), unique in the history of the Earth, carried out for war reasons. with chemical means (defoliants, etc.) which have induced ecological imbalances that can only be absorbed over a long period of time; the restoration of the forest cover undoubtedly represents one of the country’s major economic problems. 3.6% of the territory is protected: there are, among others, two national parks, two national parks – buffer zones, marine protected areas, natural oases and cultural and historical sites. UNESCO has declared Ha Long Bay (1994, 2000), which has around 1600 islets, and Phong Nha-Ke Bhang National Park (2003) a World Heritage Site. Visit healthvv.com for Vietnam mighty Mekong med mera.
On 2 July 1976 the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam was officially proclaimed, born from the unification of the former Republic of Viet Nam (or Viet Nam of the South) and the former Democratic Republic of Viet Nam (or Viet Nam of the North). However, the leading role is maintained by the Communist Party also according to the new Constitution of April 15, 1992 which sanctions the renunciation of Marxism-Leninism and the protection of property; on the basis of it, the legislative power belongs to the National Assembly, elected every 5 years by universal and direct suffrage. The National Assembly elects the Head of State from within its own sphere and appoints the Council of Ministers, which is responsible for exercising executive power. The legal system is based on the French code and on the Marxist doctrine. Justice is administered by the People’s Courts, whose last resort is represented by the Supreme People’s Court. The death penalty is in force in the country. The military includes the three traditional weapons; There are also various paramilitary formations, such as the Self-Defense Forces, the Militia and the People’s Public Security Forces. Military service is compulsory for men and is carried out from 18 years of age. Women can also perform military service, with operational duties and on a voluntary basis. The duration of the draft varies according to the weapon in which it is carried out: 2 years in the army, from 3 to 4 years in the navy. Since the official proclamation of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, the school system has been unified throughout the territory, private and religious schools were nationalized and adult education campaigns were launched to combat illiteracy, which is still significant today (9.7% in 2006). Primary education is free and compulsory, lasting from 6 to 10 years of age. Secondary school ends after 7 years and is divided into a first cycle of 4 years and a second of 3. Higher education is given in various institutes, which provide technical specializations, and in the universities of the country, including those of Hanoi (1956), Thanh Phô Hô Chí Minh e Buon Me Thuot.